CONVERGE includes state-of-the-art models for simulating liquid spray phenomena. In this workshop, we will describe the models in CONVERGE for liquid breakup, collision and coalescence, vaporization, drag, turbulent dispersion, and drop/wall interaction. In particular, we will discuss numerical mesh and parcel number settings for achieving grid convergence for RANS and LES simulations. In addition, we will discuss VOF-spray one-way coupling and ELSA capabilities in CONVERGE. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
CONVERGE includes a full spectrum of methodologies, from RANS to LES, to model turbulence. In this workshop, we will discuss the theory behind different methodologies and different turbulence models, as well as recommendations for and limitations of each model. In addition, we will discuss the results of some published RANS and LES simulations. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
Lunch is provided.
CONVERGE contains several options for three-dimensional combustion modeling in combustion devices such as internal combustion engines, gas turbine combustors, and industrial burners. In this workshop, we will discuss several combustion models that can be used to simulate premixed combustion: direct chemistry approach (SAGE), G-Equation, Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM), and Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM). This workshop will focus on the underlying theory and the advantages and disadvantages of each combustion model, as well as how these models are coupled with the CFD solver in CONVERGE. We will give recommendations and best practices, and we will show published CONVERGE results for premixed combustion modeling in different types of engines. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
CONVERGE contains several options for three-dimensional combustion modeling in combustion devices such as internal combustion engines, gas turbine combustors, and industrial burners. In this workshop, we will discuss several combustion models that can be used to simulate diffusion-controlled, non-premixed combustion: direct chemistry approach (SAGE), Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF), 3-Zone Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z), and Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM). This workshop will focus on the underlying theory and the advantages and disadvantages of each combustion model, as well as how these models are coupled with the CFD solver in CONVERGE. We will give recommendations and best practices, and we will show published CONVERGE results for non-premixed combustion modeling in different types of engines. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
In this workshop we will discuss timely and popular topics in internal combustion (IC) engine modeling and some of the unique features of CONVERGE that yield efficient and accurate simulations. Ever wonder why predicted cylinder quantities do not match the measured data when you think you have set up the case correctly? We will talk about what you need to consider when the predicted cylinder pressures do not agree with measurements and how to assess the accuracy of your input parameters. With optimized cell counts via Adaptive Mesh Refinement and fast flow and detailed chemistry solvers, you can extend your simulation domain to include multiple cylinders to analyze cylinder-to-cylinder variation, run multiple cycles to understand cycle-to-cycle variation, and capture propagating pressure waves to resolve engine knock. We will draw case setup recommendations from published works that use CONVERGE.
*This lecture includes hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
Lunch is provided.
Every engine designer or manufacturer today wants to find ways to reduce engine emissions in pursuit of performance enhancement and conformation to emission standards. There are primarily two areas of focus for this pursuit: reduction of engine-out emissions and engine aftertreatment. In this lecture we will discuss the options available in CONVERGE and best practice recommendations to obtain accurate engine-out emissions. Detailed emissions modeling can be quite complex but can yield accurate predictions that match the measured data and trends across different cases. CONVERGE includes two detailed soot models: particulate mimic and particulate size mimic. CONVERGE contains acceleration strategies to make it feasible to account for detailed soot modeling (which includes gas-phase chemistry for its many sub-processes such as formation via precursor-species, coagulation, and oxidation) in engine simulations. In this course, we will also discuss NOx, unburnt HC, and CO formation in IC engines and gas turbines, look at the models available in CONVERGE, and discuss case setup recommendations to obtain accurate predictions. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
CONVERGE includes a variety of tools to perform simplified kinetics calculations and to manipulate and evaluate chemical kinetic mechanisms. Zero-dimensional and one-dimensional calculators enable estimating the ignition delay and the flame speed of mixtures using specified kinetic mechanisms. The mechanism merge and reduction tools allow combining and decreasing the size of mechanisms to facilitate CFD chemistry calculations. This workshop will discuss the setup of these tools in CONVERGE Studio and strategies for effectively using them with CFD simulations. Participants will practice using the setup menus for the various modules. *This lecture includes hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
For several years CONVERGE has been able to interface with other software packages to model heat transfer in solids. Now CONVERGE can do both CFD and solid heat transfer modeling in the same simulation, which can simplify the process of predicting the temperatures in solids that are dependent on fluid interfaces, e.g., heads and valves in engines. This workshop will discuss conjugate heat transfer modeling in CONVERGE, including supercycling, which accounts for the disparate timescales in the solid and fluid domains by allowing the solid side of the simulation to progress with faster timescales than the fluid side of the simulation, and valve/seat contact resistance in engines, which is critical to accurate prediction of valve and head temperatures. *This lecture includes hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
Lunch is provided.
This workshop will focus on Urea/SCR engine aftertreatment modeling in CONVERGE. We will discuss urea decomposition and hydrolysis to ammonia, and we will describe how to set up urea-water spray modeling in CONVERGE. In addition, we will discuss Kuhnke and Bai-Gosman wall interaction models, various phenomena that can lead to urea deposit formation (e.g., filming, rebounding, stripping, and separating), and the application of conjugate heat transfer modeling to obtain accurate wall temperatures. We will discuss SCR surface chemistry, which can be solved directly with CONVERGE or via coupling with GT-SUITE. This workshop will include sample cases for practical Urea/SCR systems as well as validation cases. Finally, we will discuss solution acceleration approaches, which allow CONVERGE to simulate timescales necessary for film and deposit evaluation. *This lecture includes hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
Volume of fluid (VOF) methods are some of the most popular numerical techniques for locating moving and deforming interfaces between fluids in multiphase flow simulations. In this workshop we will discuss numerical details, example cases, and some validation calculations for the various VOF options in CONVERGE. One VOF method in CONVERGE is based on the species mass fraction equation and is appropriate for miscible or compressible multiphase flow calculations. One option in CONVERGE, which is based on the mass fraction VOF, is VOF-spray one-way coupling. In this option CONVERGE collects detailed fluid flow information near the nozzle exit during a VOF simulation and then uses this information to inject parcels for Lagrangian spray calculations. Another VOF method, which solves for the void fraction directly, is available in CONVERGE as two separate schemes: Piecewise-Linear Interface Calculation (PLIC) and High-Resolution Interface-Capturing (HRIC). These schemes have been tested on a range of problems including a breaking dam, a rising droplet, and spray injection, and each test case illustrates the ability of the method to track interfaces sharply. *This lecture includes hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
Rigid body fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling describes how the presence of one or more immersed objects affect the flow field and how the forces from the surrounding fluid influence the dynamics of the object. In this workshop we will discuss the theory behind FSI, the numerics of the dynamics solver, and the coupling of the dynamics solver to the flow solver in CONVERGE. We will consider several examples (a pressure relief valve, a spool valve, and an injector armature) that highlight the current capabilities of FSI modeling in CONVERGE. Finally, we will discuss complex examples that invoke a user-defined function coupled with FSI to model deforming bodies such as reed valve petals or a spring-close ball valve. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.
Lunch is provided.
CONVERGE features a sealing tool, which will dynamically eliminate gaps between parts that are moving relative to one another. The sealing process is dynamic in that the surface enclosing the computational domain is recreated at each time-step based on the boundary motion and the seal definitions, and thus this tool can be applied to a variety of cases, including two-stroke engines, Wankel engines, components connected by pins and bearings, pumps, and rotating machinery. We will give an overview of the sealing process and explain the geometric approach used to recreate the sealed surface from the boundaries and seal definitions. We will discuss best practices for surface preparation and case setup and demonstrate examples of applying seals to a check valve, a two-stroke engine, a Wankel engine, crankcase components, a gerotor pump, and a supercharger. *This lecture does not include hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice. Sealing is under development in CONVERGE 3.0, so this session will use CONVERGE 2.4.
CONVERGE Studio is not just for pre-processing! There are several powerful post-processing tools in the Line Plotting module in CONVERGE Studio. This workshop will discuss (1) how to generate and customize plots and create reports, (2) how to combine output files from multiple restarts, (3) how to use the Fast Fourier Transform calculator to transform the signal between the time and frequency domains and to complete engine knock analysis, (4) how to use the Apparent Heat Release Rate calculator to calculate the apparent heat release from a pressure signal, and (5) how to use the Engine Performance calculator to calculate the work and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from cylinder pressure. *This lecture includes hands-on CONVERGE Studio practice.